In this chapter you will learn:

  1. What are mixtures?

  2. Methods to separate mixtures

  3. Filtration

  4. Distillation

  5. Fractional distillation

  6. Crystallisation

  7. Paper chromatography


A mixture contains two or more elements or compounds that are not chemically combined to each other.

Methods to separate mixtures

There are various methods to separate mixtures, such as filtration, distillation, fractional distillation, crystallisation and Paper chromatography.


Filtration is used to separate an insoluble solid particle from a liquid.


Distillation is used to collect solvent by heating it up to its boiling points, then condensing it in a column.

Fractional distillation

Fractional distillation separates different liquids from a mixture of liquids.


Crystallisation is used to collect copper sulfate crystals from copper sulfate solution.

Paper chromatography

Paper chromatography is used to separate mixtures of substances into their components.