Chemical bonds ionic covalent metallic

Types of chemical bonds

In this chapter you will learn about:

  1. Ionic bonding

  2. Covalent bonds

  3. Metallic bonds

There are three types of chemical bonds: ionic, covalent, metalic.

Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding occurs between oppositely charged ions. Ions are made by transferring electrons.

There are strong electrostatic forces of attraction keeping them together.

Large amount of energy is needed to overcome ionic bonds.

Examples of ionic compounds are SodiumChloride and MagnisiumChloride.

Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points due to the strong electrostatic forces between them.

Ionic compounds only conduct electricity when melted or dissolved as only then the ions are free to move.

Ionic compounds can not conduct electricity when they are solid.

Covalent bonds

Atoms forming covalent bonds share electrons with each other.

Covalent bonds form between most non-metal elements.

Covalent bonds are very strong.

In polymers, molecule are joined together by strong covalent bonds in long chains.

A lot of energy is required to break covalent bonds.

Examples of giant covalent structures are diamond and graphite.

Metallic bonds

Metallic bonds are the strong electrostatic force of attraction that exists between the positively charged metal ions and the delocalised electrons.

In metallic structure, a 'sea' of delocalised electrons surrounds positively charged metal ions.

Metallic bonds are very strong. A lot of energy is required to break metallic bonds.

Metals have high melting and boiling points.

Metals are malleable, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity.