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Metals and Non metals

In this chapter you will learn:

  1. Properties of Metals and Non metals

  2. Group 0 – Noble Gases

  3. Group 1 – Alkali Metals

  4. Group 7 – Halogens

  5. Transition metals

Properties of Metals and Non metals

Most of the elements are metals. Elements that react to form positive ions in their chemical reaction are metals.

Elements that do not form positive ions in their chemical reaction are non-metals.

  • Metals conduct electricity.

  • Metals are also malleable.

  • Metals conduct energy.

  • Metals have high density.

  • Metals are good conductor of heat.

  • Mostly metals are too strong.

  • Metal elements are found towards the left and bottom of the periodic table.

Properties of Non metals

  • Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity.

  • Non-metals are not strong enough.

  • Non-metals are very brittle.

  • Non-metal have often low density.

  • Non-metals are generally dull.

  • Non-metal have low melting points.

  • Non-metal elements are found towards the right and top of the periodic table.

Group 0 – Noble Gases

The elements in Group 0 of the periodic table are called the noble gases.

Group 0 elements are placed in the right column of the periodic table.

They do not easily form molecules.

They are all chemically unreactive.

The noble gases exist as single atoms.

They have very low melting and boiling points.

They are monatomic, colourless, non-flammable gases.

Noble gases have the maximum number of electrons in their outer shell, except for helium, which has only two electrons.

Helium is used for filling balloons.

Group 1 – Alkali Metals

The elements in Group 1 of the periodic table are called the alkali metals, because they form hydroxides that form alkaline solutions in water.

Group 1 elements are placed in the vertical column on the left side of the periodic table.

Lithium, sodium and potassium all belong to alkali metals.

Group 1 elements have 1 electron in their outer shell. Group 1 elements are very reactive,

Alkali metals are soft. They are good conductors of electricity and heat.

Alkali metals have lower melting and boiling points compared to other metals.

Alkali metals have low density.

Group 7 – Halogens

Group 7 elements are located in the vertical column on the right of the periodic table.

The elements in Group 7 of the periodic table are known as the halogens, that are poisonous and include fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine.

Fluorine and chlorine are both gases at room temperature.

Bromine is a liquid, and iodine and astatine are solids at room temperature.

At room temperature the physical state of the halogens changes as you go down the Group.

Chlorine is green, bromine is brown and iodine is black.

Group 7 elements have seven electrons in their outer shell.

The halogens are non-metals and consist of molecules.

Each molecule is made up of a pair of atoms.

In group 7, the melting and boiling points increase as you go down the group.

Transition metals

The transition elements are metals.

The transition metals have high melting points and high density.

The transition elements are located in the center of the periodic table.

They are good conductors of heat and electricity.

Transition metals form coloured ions and compounds. They are less reactive. Transition metals do not react as quickly with water or oxygen. They act as catalysts.

The transition metals are hard and strong.

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